Things are going well. At rehab Wednesday, I did the usual plus added 30 reps on the lap pull. O2 staying in the 95% to 99% range. Did some baking, worked on a revision of our Condo Association's declaration, Bylaws and Rules (a tedious task), and plowed through a lot of email to create this post. A LOT of important items today. ~Bob
General News and Comment
Excerpt: This was always nonsense, but then again so much of the hype about Obama in the early days of his presidency was nonsensical. Still it does contribute to the poignancy of the moment. I’m referring specifically to the Islamic State and their celebration of slavery. MEMRI has excerpts of Facebook chats between British and French supporters of the group as they discuss the great news that you can buy Yazidi women as sex slaves.
Worth reading: The Obama economy is not working for the Democrats. By Ed Rogers
Excerpt: At Milwaukee Laborfest in
Wisconsin this past weekend, President Obama
spoke about how he and the Democrats believe the American economy has
strengthened over the last six years. The president told the crowd that “by almost every
measure, the American economy and American workers are better off than when I
took office.” That just isn’t true. And a trove of new analysis proves my
Excerpt: The world seems to be falling apart. Reading
Excerpt: Only lunatics from
Korea or Iran
once mumbled about using nuclear weapons against their supposed enemies. Now
Vladimir Putin, after gobbling up the Crimea, points to his nuclear arsenal and
warns the West not to “mess” with Russia. The Middle
East terrorist group the Islamic State keeps beheading its
captives and threatening the West. Meanwhile Obama admits to the world that we
“don’t have a strategy yet” for dealing with such barbaric terrorists. Not long
ago he compared them to “jayvees.” Egypt
is bombing Libya, which America once
bombed and then left. (In 2012, Obama famously bragged that he had "Al
Qaeda on the run." Looking at the world, it seems to me that in the past
five years of Obama, the Islamist militants have civilization on the run. ~Bob)
What your 1st-grade life says about the rest of it
Excerpt: In the beginning, when they knew just where to find everyone, they pulled the children out of their classrooms. They sat in any quiet corner of the schools they could claim: the sociologists from Johns Hopkins and, one at a time, the excitable first-graders. Monica Jaundoo, whose parents never made it past the eighth grade. Danté Washington, a boy with a temper and a dad who drank too much. Ed Klein, who came from a poor white part of town where his mother sold cocaine. (I tell my co-workers…there are 4 factors required for success: talent, desire, encouragement, and resources. See what’s missing here and where the focus of problem solving needs to be…--G)
5 Feminist Myths That Will Not Die: If we're genuinely committed to improving the circumstances of women, we need to get the facts straight. By Christina Hoff Sommers
Excerpt: Much of what we hear about the plight of American women is false. Some faux facts have been repeated so often they are almost beyond the reach of critical analysis. Though they are baseless, these canards have become the foundation of Congressional debates, the inspiration for new legislation and the focus of college programs. Here are five of the most popular myths that should be rejected by all who are genuinely committed to improving the circumstances of women: (Looking for perfection is always a bit silly, but continuing to look for improvement has always been a part of
America. -- Del)
The Top 10 Questions About the World's Biggest Problems. By Stephen Walt (professor of international relations at
) Harvard University
Excerpt: I'm in
today to attend the annual
meeting of the American Political Science Association. The timing is
fortuitous, because I'm pondering a number of big questions these days and I'll
be interested to see what some of the nation's best scholars think about them.
So for what they may be worth, here are my Top 10 Foreign Policy Puzzles: (The
professor has come up with a reasonable summary of major problems in the world.
They aren't the only ones, I think that overpopulation and depletion of natural
resources are pretty serious, and the decline of much of Western Civilization
is no small matter either, but there is no doubt we are all victims of the
ancient Chinese curse "May you live in interesting times". On number
8, the author is a full believer in AGW and writes as if it's "settled
science", which is most certainly is not. On top of which, were the idea
correct, there is absolutely NOTHING that human beings can do to stop it at
this point, and it will only get worse because we have 6+ billion people on the
planet, and more of them are burning oil and coal all the time. The USA could
cripple its own industries and raise the cost of living markedly, and achieve
nothing but make the carbon credit brokers super rich. I would say the question
is, will the near-panic propaganda about "Global
Warming" finally die down or not? -- Del. He's at
It's like being a Cardinal--you are required to believe in certain things. AGW
is one of them. ~Bob) Harvard, Del.
Emails Prove that IRS Head Ignored "Dirty Money" from Liberal Unions While Persecuting Conservatives!
Excerpt: The official at the center of the IRS tea party scandal once dismissed complaints that labor unions were not reporting millions of dollars in political activities on their tax forms, according to an email obtained by The Daily Caller News Foundation.
Read more at http://lastresistance.com/7114/emails-prove-irs-head-ignored-dirty-money-liberal-unions-persecuting-conservatives/#QxCI69fIKdTiFrGZ.99
Read more at http://lastresistance.com/7114/emails-prove-irs-head-ignored-dirty-money-liberal-unions-persecuting-conservatives/#QxCI69fIKdTiFrGZ.99
Federal judges voice concern about privacy implications of NSA tactics
Excerpt: A panel of federal judges voiced significant concerns Tuesday about the privacy implications of NSA surveillance tactics during a wide-ranging hearing on a legal challenge brought by the ACLU. In an oral argument that was set for less than 30 minutes and lasted nearly two hours, three judges on a panel hearing the case at the Second U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan probed claims by the ACLU that the federal government's collection of data relating to "every phone call made or received by residents of the United States" is illegal and unconstitutional.
More than 57,000 gun-friendly bars, eateries crop up across
Welcoming armed customers can attract Second Amendment rights activists, deter
crime. By Kelly Riddell America
Excerpt: “This is a
restaurant, and we abide by Virginia
state laws, which allow for open carry or concealed carry in a restaurant — so
why should I hinder it? It’s our constitutional right to bear arms,” said Bryan Crosswhite,
owner of the Cajun Experience. “We definitely see more traffic since we started
this. It’s been an overwhelming response.”
In addition to owning a gun-friendly eatery, Mr. Crosswhite has started an organization that lists other pro-Second Amendment companies nationally, called www.2amendment.org. He started the venture this winter and already has 57,000 businesses signed on.
Reading: An eye on the Baltic states?
By George F. Will
Excerpt: The Islamic State is a nasty problem that can be remedied if its neighbors, assisted by the
United States, decide to do
so. Vladimir Putin’s fascist revival is a crisis
that tests the West’s capacity to decide. Putin’s serial amputations of
portions of Ukraine, which
began with his fait accompli in Crimea, will proceed, and succeed, until his appetite is
satiated. Then the real danger will begin. ... So, suppose Putin, reprising
his Ukrainian success, orchestrates unrest among the Russian-speaking
minorities in Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia. (In a military
contest with Russia
in that area, we use nukes or we lose. ~Bob)
Dem candidate drops out of Senate race in
against Sen. Roberts Kansas
Excerpt: The Democratic candidate in the race against Sen. Pat Roberts in
ended his campaign Wednesday, leaving an independent candidate and a
Libertarian candidate to face off against the three-term Republican incumbent. ...
Roberts' executive campaign manager called the move a
"corrupt bargain" between Democratic leaders and Orman's campaign and
said Orman's independent status is "a smoke screen." Leroy
Fake Cellphone Towers Are Intercepting Calls All Over The US
Excerpt: The point is: we don't really know whose they are," Goldsmith said to Popular Science.....In an amazing coincidence, police departments in a handful of U.S. cities have been operating "Stingray" or "Hailstorm" towers, which — you guessed it — conduct surveillance on mobile phone activity. They do that by jamming mobile phone signals, forcing phones to drop down from 4G and 3G network bands to the older, more insecure 2G band
Excerpt: Poroshenko is over a barrel. Russia has stepped up its campaign, and the Obama administration responded with a clear signal that the United Statesand the West would provide no meaningful support to Ukraine – a signal reaffirmed last week when President Obama refused to call Putin’s aggression an “invasion” and stressed that a U.S. military confrontation with Russia was unthinkable.
army is in retreat and it cannot compete with Russia’s invasion forces. (With
friend/allies like US, who needs enemies? Ahh, that "flexibility."
Race Card News
Eric Holder: A More Dangerous Race-Card Hustler Than Al Sharpton. By Larry Elder
Excerpt: It’s one thing to watch race hustlers like the Rev. Al Sharpton bellowing, “No justice, no peace.” But when the attorney general of the
makes false but racially incendiary claims about today’s alleged “pernicious
racism,” we are in uncharted territory.
Holder complains about different prison rates, different school expulsion rates and longer prison sentences for black boys and men compared to white boys and men. He equates “equal rights” with “equal results.” (The writer is one of those uppity black conservatives. ~Bob)
The other racism
Excerpt: Americans know of the Aryan Nations, "skin heads," Neo-Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), and similar groups of white people who, for any number of reasons, harbor grave animosity toward other Americans. More specifically, these groups are known for their racial hatred of blacks. It is a rabid hatefulness that lessens the bearer's humanity. There exists, however, a hesitancy to examine similar racial hatred in American blacks. Not only is there a hesitancy to examine such hatred, but it is forbidden even to voice its existence. I will voice that existence here, because it needs to be voiced. The existing notion among some leftist black activists that a person cannot be racist if he is of a minority race without power is laughable.
The Rev. Al Sharpton speaks against death penalty at Yale
Excerpt: Among mostly
undergraduate students, the Rev. Al Sharpton spoke Tuesday on
how he is against the death penalty, explaining execution does not resolve
problems. Speaking Tuesday evening
at Woolsey Hall, Sharpton, head of the National Action Network, said the death
penalty doesn’t resolve any justice, and suggested life in jail as a possible
solution. The event was held by the Yale Political Union. (I
can think of one problem it could solve…--G. My position as a senator was that
it should be like a barber shop: Two chairs, no waiting. ~Bob) Yale University
The ‘War on Black People’: But Who Is Winning?. By Colin Flaherty
St. Louis is now
Ground Zero for the “war on black males”: So named by Spike Lee after a white
cop shot a black teenager, unleashing ten days of riots and rage and free
shopping in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson. But here is
what Spike Lee did not say: Black people are winning the war. At least in St. Louis. Black-on-white
crime is an everyday fact of life in this once vibrant city. And more and more
people — the ones who are left, anyway — are wondering why local media refuse
to tell the truth about it.
Speed Kills Racial Profiling Study. By Ann Coulter
Excerpt: But Wines revives the canard about blacks being disproportionately targeted in traffic stops. There actually is a study for that. ... Blacks constituted 25 percent of all speeders and they were 23 percent of drivers stopped for speeding. Controlling for age and gender, blacks sped at about twice the rate of whites.
Obamacare/Government Healthcare News
Excerpt: Having spent $26 billion of taxpayers’ money since 2009 inducing hospitals and physicians to install electronic health records (EHRs), many champions of the effort are dismayed that the EHRs are not interoperable. That is, they cannot talk to each other — which was the whole point of subsidizing the effort. ... But what do these EHRs do? What they do not do is talk to each other. According to the same review, “only 10 percent of ambulatory practices and 30 percent of hospitals were found to be participating in operational health information exchange efforts.”
Undocumented Democrat News
Voters Strongly Oppose Obama's Amnesty Plan for Illegal Immigrants
Excerpt: A new Rasmussen Reports national telephone survey finds that 62% of Likely U.S. Voters oppose the president granting amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants without the approval of Congress. Just 26% are in favor of Obama's plan, while 12% are undecided. (Which is why he won't act until after the November election. ~Bob)
"You're Greener Than Gore" News
Important: Electricity prices rise most since 2009. By Zack Colman
Excerpt: Electricity prices for the first half of the year increased the most in a year-over-year basis since 2009, according to the Energy Department's statistics arm.
U.S. power prices are up
3.2 percent, according to the U.S. Energy Information
Administration. (Obama and the Green Progressives stick it to the poor and
working class again. And, of course, you too. ~Bob)
Yes, solar is booming, but ... By Robert Bryce
Excerpt: Since 2011, the amount of energy produced by the solar sector has more than doubled. But amidst the solar frenzy, we must remember the critical issue of scale. Indeed, despite solar's rapid growth, its output is still being dwarfed by the ongoing growth in hydrocarbons.
That fact can easily be proven by comparing the surge in solar-energy production with the remarkable growth in domestic oil output.
Don't Cut Carbon, Just Adapt to Climate Change
Excerpt: The Obama administration has been focused on mitigating carbon emissions, writes Edward Lazear of the Hoover Institution, rather than adapting to climate change (such as planting crops that can withstand high heat). The mitigation approach is not cost-effective, and it will have no impact on the world's warming. Lazear explains that the entire world emitted 31 gigatons of carbon dioxide in 2012, led by
China (responsible for 25 percent of the
emissions) and the United
States (responsible for one-sixth of the
carbon emissions have increased each year, a trend that puts the country on
track to emit 99 gigatons of carbon by 2014 -- three times the amount the
entire world emits today. But according to Lazear, the 99-gigaton estimate is
unrealistic, because countries increase their energy efficiency as they
develop. Even so, with no emissions growth, by 2041 China would emit the same amount of
carbon dioxide emitted by the entire globe today.
Religion of Peace News
Reading: Urgent Memo
For The President - Re: ISIS. By Andy
Excerpt: Sir, disturbed by the grisly beheading of a second American, Mr. Steve Sotloff - by the barbarians of ISIS (whom you refer to as ISIL) - I could not sleep peaceably last night (think George Orwell).
Excerpt: This was Obama's war and Obama has lost it. It's a failed state in which jihadists are running around seizing commercial airliners. If Bush had done this it would be on the front page of every newspaper.
Former CIA Operative: Yes, ISIS is in The
By Katie Pavlich U.S.
Excerpt: "What are your sources telling you about ISIS and any cells in the
States?" Tapper asked. "The people
who collect tactical intelligence on the ground, day-to-day, and this isn't Washington, but people collecting this stuff say they're
here, ISIS is here, they're capable of
What to do About ISIS? Constructing Strategy, Weighing Options. By Mark Safranski http://zenpundit.com/?p=39502
and demands for action from the United States – and also inaction – from many quarters. What is to be done? That is a famous question. In matters of geopolitics and strategy, it is more fitting to begin with “Should something be done?”. We need to define the problem before rushing toward solutions. What is ISIS/ISIL/IS and does it threaten the
and American interests?: (Really excellent article. -- Del)
Sotloff Family Furious With White House… And The Nyt Buried It
Excerpt: The family of Steven Sotloff, the latest American journalist beheaded by ISIS, is reportedly "outraged" at the Obama administration for "deliberate leaks" they interpret as "an attempt to absolve the administration of inaction."
Excerpt: The intelligence community is pushing back, saying that the growing
ISIS threat has been included in the Presidential
Daily Brief over the past year. A former Pentagon official confirms to Fox News
that detailed and specific intelligence about the rise of ISIS was included in the PDB, or the President’s
Daily Brief, for at least a year before the group took large swaths of territory
beginning in June. The official, who asked not to be identified because the PDB
is considered the most authoritative, classified intelligence community product
providing the President with analysis of sensitive international events, said
the data was strong, and “granular” in detail, adding a policy maker “…could
not come away with any other impression: This is getting bad.”
Saudi king warns of terrorist threat to Europe, US. By Abdullah Al-Shihri and Sameer Yaacoub
Excerpt: The king of
Arabia has warned that extremists could attack Europe and
the U.S. if there is not a
strong international response to terrorism after the Islamic State group seized
a wide territory across Iraq
While not mentioning any terrorist groups by name, King Abdullah's statement
appeared aimed at drawing Washington and NATO forces into a wider fight against
the Islamic State group and its supporters in the region.
Official: American May Be Key in
ISIS Social Media Blitz. By
Michele Mcphee and Brian Ross
Excerpt: An American college graduate from
who has been on the run from the FBI for years, is suspected of joining ISIS and
leveraging his computer skills to spread the Iraqi terror group’s propaganda on
social media, a senior law enforcement official told ABC News.
State Department Won't "Label"
So They're Attacking Fox News Instead. By Katie Pavlich
Excerpt: Last night on the O'Reilly Factor, Bill O'Reilly said State Department Spokeswoman Jen Psaki is in over her head and Deputy Spokeswoman Marie Harf is really upset about it. Keep in mind Harf and Psaki both speak on behalf of Secretary of State John Kerry.
Fears Grow Over American Terrorist 'Wannabes' Trying to Join
Excerpt: As the conflict with the Islamic State (ISIS) intensifies, a small group of young Americans have been seeking to join extremist groups in the Middle East, intent on fighting against
interests. At least seven "wannabes" have been arrested in the last
15 months after trying to travel to join the militant groups, while an eighth —
a former police officer from North Carolina —
was arrested on an unrelated charge after unsuccessfully attempting to join
ISIS in Syria, according to NBC News. (He's saying that because if you
accept the Sharia, etc, as the word of God, it will lead you directly to
becoming a jihadist, dedicated to the spread of Islam by any means necessary. He
has just explained what it means to be a Muslim IF you accept those parts
of the sacred books. All Muslims accept the Quran as the word of God, but not
all accept the Sharia, Sunna, etc, also as the word of God, if they don't, they
don't have to see being Muslim as the same as being jihadist. -- Del)
The moderate rebels: A needle in a haystack
Excerpt: If the nature of the Free Syrian Army’s name was ambiguous since its inception in 2011, it is clear today that it is nothing but a label for media consumption. … Announcing their FSA affiliation was a mere pathway to receiving foreign support. Funders - most notably
Saudi Arabia, Qatar and
Salafis - were keen on the Islamist identity of the groups receiving support
without requiring them to announce it publicly.
Excerpt: As soon as weapons shipments from the CIA were arriving in
FSA weapons caches were being raided by jihadist groups, including ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra, the official
al-Qaeda affiliate in Syria,
under very suspicious circumstances. … But by April of this year, the Obama
adminstration’s CIA weapons spigot was turned back on, with the FSA now
receiving heavy weapons, including anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles. And in
late June, President Obama asked Congress for $500 million to arm and train the FSA. (Remember also Liz
O’Bagy outed as an agent for the Syrian rebels, quickly hired by Sen. John
McCain, despite her false credentials….Barb)
Excerpt: Rear Admiral John Kirby, the Pentagon's press secretary, provided some additional details on last night's airstrike on Shabaab, al Qaeda's official branch in
Shabaab's emir, Ahmed Abdi Godane, a.k.a. Mukhtar Abu Zubayr, was the target of
the strike, which included both drones and manned aircraft, Kirby confirmed.
And the strike hit a Shabaab "encampment" south of Mogadishu
Excerpt: The Pakistani military claimed that 910 "terrorists" and 82 soldiers have been killed since it launched an operation against the Movement of the Taliban in
and allied jihadist groups in North Waziristan
in mid-June. Dismissing the military's claims as "complete lies," a
Taliban splinter group denied that hundreds of jihadists had been killed and
said training camps and bomb factories were moved before the operation was
Missing Libyan Jetliners Raise Fears of Suicide Airliner Attacks on 9/11
Excerpt: Islamist militias in
took control of nearly a dozen commercial jetliners last month, and western
intelligence agencies recently issued a warning that the jets could be used in
terrorist attacks across North Africa.
WFB’s Bill Gertz: Obama Administration ‘Trying to Play Down’ Missing Libyan Airliners
Excerpt: “It seems like the State Department, the Obama administration, is trying to play down these reports, but the people I talked to were fairly concerned about them,” Gertz said. “Again, they are trying to locate these jets. I don’t think the CIA has a full handle on where all of the aircraft from the airlines were. T
Muslim Man Massacres 186 Christian Children, And Then Says, “I Don’t Feel Guilty”
Excerpt: Nurpashi Kulaev, the only surviving Muslim jihadist who took part in the Beslan Massacre, in which 186 Christian children were killed, has affirmed that he feels no guilt for his crime, saying:
Indian states on alert after al Qaeda announces local wing
Excerpt: India put several provinces on heightened alert on Thursday after al Qaeda announced the formation of a wing of the militant group in
India and its neighborhood, a
senior government official said. In a video posted online, al Qaeda chief Ayman
al-Zawahri promised to spread Islamic rule and "raise the flag of
jihad" across the "Indian subcontinent".
Why I’m Unsubscribing From the New York Times
Excerpt: I am a lifelong Democrat, a political liberal, a Reform rabbi, and for four decades, until last week, a New York Times subscriber. What drove me away was the paper’s incessant denigration of
a torrent of articles, photographs, and op-ed columns that consistently present
the Jewish State in the worst possible light.
Excerpt: A while ago we went to get the car fixed in one of the Arab villages in
northern coastal plain near where my husband was born. The area is a microcosm
of Jewish-Arab coexistence, characterized by the kind of easy relations between
good neighbors. The repair shop is run by a man named Muhammad, who welcomed us
into his office and offered us Turkish coffee with cardamom, in the best Arab
tradition. Despite the complex situation in the Gaza Strip, there was no
tension in the air.
Excerpt: Arguably the
most successful domestically produced export to Israel has been parliamentary
democracy. Arguably its most successful domestically produced export to the
Arab world has been the anti-Semitic blood libel, the claim that Jews use the
blood of non-Jewish children to bake their Passover matzah or for other ritual
purposes. What is curious is that there are so many in Britain for
whom the latter “achievement” resonates more and finds expression in new
domestic iterations of this hoary, murderous British creation. (I'd like to
believe the average Briton does not buy into this, but given the dominance of
the elite, the media, the universities and the craven kowtowing to Muslims in Britain, I'm
afraid they have been poisoned beyond saving. This seems to already have
happened in Ireland and Scotland. Cordially,
Would I lie to you? By David Harris
Excerpt: So it's time to look at some dirty secrets, foreign correspondent edition.
Trench coats and panamas have given way to sat phones and moral ambiguity. An ideal starting point in understanding this media ambiguity – and its occasional, sinister undertones and implications for us – is the Israel-Hamas war. The penny should have dropped well before today's
Gaza crisis. No later
than April 11, 2003, in fact. That day, CNN admitted in the New York Times that
it hid and manipulated reality, though the wording was more delicately
militant Islamist group Boko Haram has captured the town of Banki,
which borders Cameroon,
after government troops fled, residents say.
The military has not yet commented on the latest town to reportedly fall to the insurgents in recent weeks.
Important: Morphing Into ‘Conventional Army,’ Boko Haram Poised to ‘Explode Any Day, Like ISIS’ Terrorist group's new "caliphate" makes lightning-fast gains, closing in on a state capital that, if seized, would tear Nigeria apart and create a huge al-Qaeda base.
Excerpt: As the world’s attention is captured by the terrifying determination and bloody modus operandi of the Islamic State, an al-Qaeda affiliate that declared a caliphate last week is sweeping across northeast Nigeria with lightning-quick efficiency and equally brutal means in a bid to break up the most populous nation on the continent. (The Nigerian government never took the steps they should have at least two years ago to bring the army up to that district and really smash these guys. They let the cancer grow, and now it's turned into a big tumor, and still growing. We can only hope the Nigerian President now becomes deadly serious about saving his country and brings every bit of military power he can muster to go after Boko Haram all-out, blast them to pieces and take no prisoners. Nothing else has any chance of stopping this horrible mess. --
Child Rape Rings Ignored; Sent
to Diversity Class Instead. By Christine Rousselle UK
Excerpt: An estimated 1,400 girls were groomed, abused, and raped between 1997 and 2013 by gangs of mostly Pakistani men. Some of the horrific reports of abuse include stories of being gang raped and doused with gasoline. Perhaps equally troubling are reports that the abuse was uncovered in 2001—and instead of being addressed by police and appropriate authorities, the whistleblower was instead sent to diversity training after she revealed the ethnicity of the rapists in her report. (To progressives, child rape is a part of the beauty of diversity, all cultures being equally valid. ~Bob)
Muslims Sexually Enslaving Children: A Global Phenomenon. By Raymond Ibrahim
Excerpt: As shocking as the Muslim-run sex ring in Rotherham, England may seem to some—1,400 British children as young as 11 plied with drugs before being passed around and sexually abused in cabs and kabob shops—the fact is that this phenomenon is immensely widespread. In the
alone, it’s the fifth sex abuse ring led by Muslims to be uncovered. Some years
back in Australia,
a group of “Lebanese Muslim youths” were responsible for a “series of brutal
gang rapes” of “Anglo-Celtic teenage girls.”
Excerpt: Under the headline “The World in Flames,” Henry Kissinger warns in a London Sunday Times op-ed of the consequences of state failure and anarchy in the Muslim world. Read it carefully: Kissinger reviews the collapse of
idea of exporting democracy during the Arab Spring and its dire consequences.
He suggests that the US needs
to work with Russia to
put out the fire: Participants in the contests search for outside support,
particularly from Russia and
in turn shaping relations between them.