Wednesday, December 2, 2015

The Handouts for my Presentation on Islam and Shari'a Law

Timeline of Islamic History

I compiled this from several sources. Islam functions as both a religious and political entity, thus its history includes development of its scriptures, doctrines, and religious practices but also political leadership, expansion, and military actions.

570: The Prophet Muhammad is born.
598: Ali, who will become the fourth caliph and the first Shiite Imam, is born.
610: The year Muslims cite as the beginning of the revelation of the Quran to Mohammad by the archangel Gabriel in a cave near Mecca.
613: Muhammad begins to preach monotheism3 and gains a few followers. However, he is largely rejected by the polytheistic culture of Mecca. (The early "Mecca" sura (verses) of the Quran are more peaceful as Muslims were a persecuted minority.)
622: The Hijra. As persecution in Mecca intensifies, Muhammad moves to Yathrib (modern-day Medina) with his followers. This move, referred to as Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and of Islam’s establishment as a major religious and political force in Medina. (The Medina sura (verses) of the Quran are more warlike. Islamist apologists cite the earlier sura. But Islamic scholar point out that the Qur'an abrogates earlier verses if they conflict.
622: Muhammad marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bakr. According to the Hadith, she is 6 at the time, but he doesn't consummate the marriage until she is 9. This is the basis for child marriage in the Islamic world under Shari'a Law.
624: Battle of Badr. Muslims gain a significant military victory over a larger Meccan army, attributing their success to divine intervention.
630: Muslims conquer Mecca. They clear the Ka'bah, a religious shrine from pre-Islamic times, of the polytheistic idols held there and dedicate the site for the worship of the one God.
632: Muhammad dies. Abu Bakr is chosen as caliph, Mohammad's successor by a Sunna that may have excluded Ali's supporters. A minority favors Ali. They become known as Shiat Ali, or the partisans of Ali. This is the beginning of the Sunni-Shia split in Islam.
632-661" The four caliphs to succeed Muhammad as the leader of the Islamic community were all important companions of the Prophet, and they are known as the "Rightly Guided Caliphs," making up the Rashidun Caliphate.
634: After the death of Abu Bakr, 'Umar (c. 591-644) succeeds him as caliph of Islam. During his reign, the Islamic empire undergoes an enormous military expansion.
635-641: Muslim armies conquer Syria, Persia, Alexandria, and Jerusalem.
644: 'Umar is assassinated by a Persian slave. Uthman succeeds him as Islam's leader.
C 650: Muhammad’s orally transmitted revelations are collected and recorded in a single authorized version of the Quran. (However, there are various versions of the Qur'an, including the one just found in the UK which may predate Mohammad!)
656: Uthman is assassinated by dissenting Muslims and succeeded by ‘Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. His reign is marked by civil war and battles between the Sunni and Shi'a factions.
661: 'Ali is assassinated by dissenting Muslims, and Mu'awiyah seizes power, ending the Rashidun Caliphate and establishing a family dynasty.
671-750: The Umayyad dynasty established by Mu'awiyah rules for nearly a century from their capital at Damascus. The Islamic Empire continues to expand through military conquests during their reign.
680: Hussein, son of Ali, marches against the superior army of the caliph at Karbala in Iraq. He is defeated, his army massacred, and he is beheaded. The split between Shiites and Sunnis deepens. Shiites consider Ali their first imam, Hussein the third.
705-715: The Umayyads convert the Christian Cathedral of St. John in Damascus into a Muslim mosque. Today the mosque is one of Islam's oldest and most sacred sites. (When Muslims conquer a land, usually the major churches are destroyed or converted to mosques.)
711: First Muslim Crusade to conquer Europe. Muslims cross the Strait of Gibraltar and invade the Iberian Peninsula. They control large portions of the peninsula for centuries, living with Jews and Christians and shaping Spanish history.
732: The Muslim advance into present-day France via the Iberian Peninsula is halted by the armies of Frankish leader Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours.
750-850: Four major schools of Islamic law are established: Hanafi, Maliki, Sāfi’ī, and Hanbali. These four schools are established by Muslim religious scholars rather than the caliphs. They become the most widely accepted interpretations of Islam by Sunni Muslims.
850-875: Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, important scholars of the accounts of Muhammad's sayings and actions, collect, authenticate, and compile hadith7 into the first two authentic collections.
997: Mahmoud of Ghazni, called the “Sword of Islam,” led a series of raids on northern India. He destroys various temples, statues, and other religious art. This is one of the main roots of anti-Muslim thought among Hindus.
1000: Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including Nigeria, which served as a trading liaison between the northern and central regions of Africa.
1095-1099: Christians engage in the first crusade against the Muslims. The Christians eventually accomplish their goal and recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. Followed by the Second Crusade in 1145 and the Third Crusade in 1187 after Jerusalem is recaptured by Muslims.
1204: The Sack of Constantinople (also called the Fourth Crusade); it looted and destroyed parts of the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire as the city was captured by Western European and Venetian Crusaders. After the capture, the Byzantine Empire fragmented into a number of small successor states, the Crusader-led Latin Empire was founded in its place and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople in the Hagia Sophia.
1265: The Knights Hospitaller surrender the citadel at Arsuf on a guarantee that they would go free. The Muslims then enslaved them.
1266: The Templers surrender Safed to the Muslims on a guarantee of safe conduct. The Muslims then behead them all.
1453: The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated a much smaller army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, who was killed. The conquest of Constantinople followed a seven-week siege that had begun on Friday, 6 April 1453. The capture of Constantinople marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople also dealt a massive blow to Christendom, as the Ottoman armies thereafter were left unchecked to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear.
1268: Muslims conquer Jaffa and slaughter the inhabitants. they then attack Antioch, burst the walls, locked the gates and slaughtered the inhabitants in perhaps the worst massacre of the Crusades, one that shocked even Muslim chroniclers.
1529: The Siege of Vienna was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. He was defeated, thus saving Europe from conquest.
1565: The Siege of Malta took place in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller. The Knights, with approximately 2,000 foot soldiers, many of which Spanish, and 400 Maltese men, women and children, withstood the siege and expelled the invaders. The Muslims were attempting to dominate the Mediterranean Ocean, with an eye on conquering Rome.
1571: The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, led by Spain decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece. It ended the Muslim threat to conquer Europe by dominating the Mediterranean. The Christian fleet was commanded by the Spanish Emperor's illegitimate brother, Don Juan of Austria, who was 22.
1683: The Battle of Vienna took place on 12 September 1683 after the imperial city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle was fought by the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in league with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Holy League) against the invading Muslim Ottoman Empire and chiefdoms of the Ottoman Empire, and took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna. The battle marked the first time Poland and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Turks, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world". In the ensuing war that lasted until 1698, the Turks lost almost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
1750: The Wahhabi movement is founded by Muhammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. It operates as an additional sect of Islam. This is the fundamentalist movement that is strong in Saudi Arabia.
1928: The Muslim Brotherhood is Founded.
1947: Muslim-majority area in India becomes Pakistan. Riots were caused as millions of Hindus moved to India proper and millions of Muslims moved to the newly established Pakistan.  200k to 500k people die in sectarian fighting.
1948: Israel becomes an independent Jewish state and defeats the surrounding Arab states in the first of several wars.


Books on Islam and the War on Terror that are Worth Reading
Available on Amazon. I have read all these books and can recommend others. Most are anti-Islamist and designed to counter the Islamic Supremacism and Jihadist apologists in much of the media. ~Bob Hall

This is the pro-Islam view by an Iranian religious scholar. In my view, several of the important questions were glossed over, and being Iranian, he leans toward the Shia side of the Sunni-Shia divide, but it’s a good, non-inflammatory understanding of how moderate Muslims view their religion. Since the challenge of militant political Islam isn’t going away, you had better understand this religion. (BTW, Islam means “submission” not “peace” as is often claimed.)

MUST READ: Advice to War Presidents. A Remedial Course in Statecraft. By Angelo Codevilla

Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia by Robert Lacey 

Mohammad & Charlemagne Revisited: The History of a Controversy by Emmet Scott.

Infidel by Ayaan Hirsi Ali

The Hand of the Prophet: A Novel of Islamic America, 2053 (Set in WisconsinBy R.A.H.

Sowing the Wind: The Seeds of Conflict in the Middle East. By John Keay.

Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh 

Questioning Islam: Tough Questions & Honest Answers About the Muslim Religion. By Peter Townsend 

Empires of the Sea: The Siege of Malta, the Battle of Lepanto, and the Contest for the Center of the World. By Roger Crowley 

Sharia Law for Non-Muslims (A Taste of Islam). By Bill Warner 

The Sword of the Prophet. Islam: History, Theology, Impact on the World by Serge Trifkovic.

The Truth About Muhammad: Founder of the World’s Most Intolerant Religion by Robert Spenser.

A Concise History of the Crusades by Thomas F. Madden.

God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades. By Rodney Stark

After America: Get Ready for Armageddon by Mark Steyn

The Coming Collapse of the American Republic by Robert A. Hall
All royalties go to a charity to help wounded veterans.

DVD: The Third Jihad


Websites and Articles of Interest about Islam
Type the URL into your browser or Google the title.

The Sura of the Sword

History of Islam

The Life of Muhammad: An Inconvenient Truth

Ten Obvious Reasons Why Islam is NOT a Religion of Peace

The 'Birmingham Koran' fragment that could shake Islam after carbon-dating suggests it is OLDER than the Prophet Muhammad

Worth Hearing: IRRATIONAL FEAR. Aussie Language on Islam

VIDEO: "Moderate" Muslims show their true colours! 

Muslim Loyalty to Non-Muslim Governments

How Nazism Explains ‘Moderate’ and ‘Radical’ Islam"

Muslims Are Not Obligated To The Agreement They Signed With A Non-Muslim – A Simple Explanation.

Muslim Brotherhood & Hitler

Sex Slavery and the Islamic State. By Mark Durie

(Is Beheading Un-Islamic?) The Battle of Hattin: How The Christians Lost The Holy Lands

Arab Muslim Slave Trade Of Africans: 140+ million slaves

List of Terrorist Attacks

The Greatest Murder Machine in History. By Mike Konrad

Are Jihad and the Crusades Morally Equivalent? By Gary DeMar

Inventing the Crusades. By Thomas F. Madden

The True History of Christendom and Islam. By Raymond Ibrahim

Jihad vs. Crusades

Staggering Statistics on Muslims Killing Muslims

Raymond Ibrahim: Koran’s Contents—Not Carbon Dating—Cast More Doubt on Islam

Sharia Afghanistan: Man, woman given 100 lashes in public for adultery. By Robert Spencer,
Excerpt: Remember: opposing Sharia punishments makes you a racist, bigoted Islamophobe.

POLL: MOST U.S. MUSLIMS WOULD TRADE CONSTITUTION FOR SHARIAH. 'Quran should be highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion'

Meanwhile, An Islamic Fifth Column Builds Inside America. BY PAUL SPERRY 

Websites about Islam

Jihad Watch

Religion of Peace

Qur'an's verses of violence

Islam Q&A: (A Muslim Site--English Translation available)

Proof that Islam is Evil, Violent, and Intolerant- Straight From the Koran

Answering Islam:


Pro-Islam websites. Support

Worship and the Five pillars of Islam :

Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him:

Islamic Morals and Practices:

E-books that you may download or read online:

1) A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam:

A translation of the meanings of the Holy Quran where you can read its English translation while listening to its Arabic recitation:
Choose a chapter, and then click on the play button.

A translation of the Quran in English, which you can either read online or download it:


Qur’an Quotes

"Slay them wherever you find them...Idolatry is worse than carnage...Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God's religion reigns supreme." (Sura 2:190-)

"Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it." (Sura 2:216)

"Men are tempted [in this life] by the lure of women...far better is the return of God. Say: 'Shall I tell you of better things than these, with which the righteous shall be rewarded by their Lord? Theirs shall be gardens watered by running streams, where they shall dwell for ever: wives of perfect chastity..." (Sura 3:14, 15)

"The only true faith in God's sight is Islam." (Sura 3:19)

"Believers, do not make friends with any but your own people...They desire nothing but your ruin....You believe in the entire Book...When they meet you they say: 'We, too, are believers.' But when alone, they bite their finger-tips with rage." (Sura 3:118, 119)

"If you should die or be slain in the cause of God, His forgiveness and His mercy would surely be better than all the riches..." (Sura 3:156-)

"To those that declare: 'God has commanded us to believe no apostle unless he brings down fire to consume an offering,' say: 'Other apostles before me [Muhammad] have come to you with veritable signs and worked the miracle you asked for...If they reject you [Muhammad], other apostles have been rejected before you..." (Sura 3:183-)

The seizure of Infidel girls and their use as sex slaves is sanctioned in the Qur’an. According to Islamic law, Muslim men can take “captives of the right hand” (Qur’an 4:3, 4:24, 33:50). The Qur’an says: “O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war” (33:50). 4:3 and 4:24 extend this privilege to Muslim men in general.

"Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them."--Qur’an 4:34

"The Jews and Christians say: 'We are the children of God and His loved ones.' Say: 'Why then does He punish you for your sins?" (Sura 5:18)

“Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment.” (Sura 5:33)

"Believers, take neither Jews nor Christians for your friends." (Sura 5:51)

"The God will say: 'Jesus, son of Mary, did you ever say to mankind 'Worship me and my mother as gods besides God?' 'Glory to You, 'he will answer, 'how could I ever say that to which I have no right?" (Sura 5:114-)

"Believers, when you encounter the infidels on the march, do not turn your backs to them in flight. If anyone on that day turns his back to them, except it be for tactical reasons...he shall incur the wrath of God and Hell shall be his home..." (Sura 8:12-)

"Make war on them until idolatry shall cease and God's religion shall reign supreme." (Sura 8:36-)

"If you fear treachery from any of your allies, you may fairly retaliate by breaking off your treaty with them." (Sura 8:51-)

" When the sacred months are over slay the idolaters wherever you find them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in ambush everywhere for them. If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way. God is forgiving and merciful. " (Sura 9:5--The Sura of the Sword)

"...make war on the leaders of unbelief...Make war on them: God will chastise them at your hands and humble them. He will grant you victory over them..." (Sura 9:12-)

"It ill becomes the idolaters [non-Muslims] to visit the mosques of God..." (Sura 9:17)

"Fight against such as those to whom the Scriptures were given [Jews and Christians]...until they pay tribute out of hand and are utterly subdued." (Sura 9:27-)

"It is He who has sent forth His apostle with guidance and the true Faith [Islam] to make it triumphant over all religions, however much the idolaters [non-Muslims] may dislike it." (Sura 9:31-)

"If you do not fight, He will punish you sternly, and replace you by other men." (Sura 9:37-)

"Prophet make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their home." (Sura 9:73)

"Believers, make war on the infidels who dwell around you. Deal firmly with them." (Sura 9:121-)

"Say: 'Praise be to God who has never begotten a son; who has no partner in His Kingdom..." (Sura 17:111)

"Fight for the cause of God with the devotion due to Him...He has given you the name of Muslims..." (Sura 22:78-)


Glossary of Islamic Arabic Terms

Since Muslims are required to pray in Arabic, the language of Allah, and Arabs and the Arabian lands are at the center of the Islamic faith, it is natural for a Muslim society to use many Arabic terms. Note that the spelling of Arabic words in English may vary widely from text to text.

Abaya - The robe, often with hood, often black, that women wear for modesty in many Islamic countries, called a Chador in Iran. The Burqa with veil is even more restrictive.
Adhan - Call to prayer.
Allah – God. (Sometimes "Allaha.") Muslims believe that Allah is indivisible and therefore could not have a son. For this reason, Christians are sometimes disparaged as “polytheists” for believing in three Gods, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Allah Akbar! – God is Great, or God is Greatest.
Allah Kereem – God is bountiful
Assalaam Alaikum - Peace be unto you. Ritual Muslim greeting – the usual response is the reverse: Alaikum Assalaam. “Peace be upon Him” is generally included after any mention of the Prophet or other venerable Muslims from history, including Jesus, who Muslims believe to be an earlier prophet of Islam. It is often rendered PBUH to save space.
Azl - Coitus Interruptus. According to the Hadith, Muhammad informed his followers that it was not necessary to use Azl with captive women they were planning to rape, as Allah had already decreed every soul to be born who would be born.
Burka – The full body covering, including veil, worn by women for modesty in public in some Islamic countries.
Caliphate – A government under Islamic rule, uniting all the Muslim countries. The Caliph, or head of the government, is considered a successor to Muhammad. Restoration of the Caliphate is a goal of Islamic extremists. Critics of Islam claim that Islam requires faithful Muslims to work (and fight) to have the entire world united in a Muslim Caliphate under Shari’a law.
Dam butlab dam – Blood demands blood. The basis for the “blood feud” in Arab Muslim countries, where an injury requires retaliation, creating a cycle of violence.
Dar al-Islam – The World of Islam, those countries under Islamic rule.
Dar al-Harb – The World of War. All countries under kufr rule. That Muslims call the non-Islamic world the “World of War” reinforces the view of critics that Islam preaches conquest of non-Muslims. It also is why a Muslim mob, rioting against, say, Danish cartoons, may attack nationals of other western countries. All Muslim are of one world, all kufr of the other.
Dhimmi – Plural often rendered dhimmis, dhimma or dhimmia. Dhimmis are the “People of the Book” (Christians and Jews) whom Muslims say are protected people as long as they pay the poll tax. Critics say dhimmis are subservient peoples, with a status like African Americans had under the Jim Crow laws.
Fatwa (fataawa plural) – an opinion on Shari’a (Islamic) law, issued by a Mufti.
Grand Mufti -- highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. The Mufti issues legal opinions and edicts, fataawa, on Islamic law.
Hadith – The traditions of the Prophet and his companions, necessary for determining the Sunna, or Muslim way of life (Sunna is sometimes used in place of Hadith, which can be confusing). The Hadith have almost the religious weight of the Qur’an, but some are considered strong and others weak. Considered especially strong are the Hadith collections labeled Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Most Muslims consider the Hadith to be the words, actions and stories of Muhammad, not of Allah. The Hadith were written down over a long period, some are disputed as having no connection to Muhammad at all.
Hajj – The pilgrimage to Mecca in twelfth month of the Muslim lunar year, Dhul Hijjah. A pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, and is expected of Muslims at some point in their lives, if at all possible. If Islam converts all six billion humans to the faith, they live an average of 70 years, and follow this requirement, that’s about 85 million visitors a year. This might be a good time to open a fast food franchise in Mecca.
Halal – Permitted by Islam, as in Halal food.
Haraam – Forbidden by Islam.
Hijab – Traditionally a term meaning modesty, often now used for the headscarf worn for modesty by Muslim women, or by dhimmis women who do not want to offend Muslims. Islamic scholars often say that an uncovered head is a form of nakedness, and the west prohibits women from going naked in public; this is thus no different. A hijab worn by Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi when visiting the dictator of Syria created political controversy at home.
Houri – The dark-eyed virgins that Muslims who die fighting for the faith expect to enjoy the company of in paradise.
Imam – Muslim religious cleric. (Mullah in Shi’a Islam.)
Insha'Allah - God willing, or “If God wills.” Often used to express that the future is uncertain. “I will see you Thursday, insha’Allah,” means, “Maybe I’ll see you Thursday, who knows?”
Isa –  (Pronounced Eesa in Arabic.) Jesus. In Muslim Theology, Isa (Jesus) was an earlier prophet of Allah, but not the Son of God. They also believe that Jesus was not crucified.
Islam – Literally submission and obedience to Allah
Jihad – Required of Muslims by the Qur’an. Critics translate it as “Holy War” designed to bring the world under Muslim rule. Apologists translate it as “Inner Spiritual Struggle.” As in, “Pardon me, but I must borrow your airplane and fly it into a large building as part of my inner spiritual struggle.”
Jinn – A genie.
Jizyah – Also Jizya. The poll tax, which the dhimmis, Christians and Jews, must pay to be allowed to live in peace under Muslim rule. Those with a favorable view of Islam point it out as showing Muslim society is tolerant. Critics of Islam consider it a protection racket, and claim the tax was so ruinous that Christians in conquered lands often had to convert or sell their children into slavery to raise the funds.
Ka’ba -  also Kaaba. Sacred Muslim building in Mecca, in the form of a cube. Main object of the Hajj. A cube shape building built by Apple in New York City has drawn protests as an insult to Islam.
Khitbah – Marriage engagement.
Kufr – Also kafir or kuffar. Unbeliever or infidel. Used derisively in Muslim countries.
Madrassa – Muslim school. Not necessarily religious, but all teach Islam as the true faith. Critics blame the Madrassas for instilling hate and fanaticism in generations of young Muslim boys. It is often the only education available to many in Muslim countries.
Mahr – Bride gift from a new husband.
Mosque – Muslim house of worship.
Mufti -- scholar who is an interpreter of Islamic law (Shari’a).
Mujahadin - Warriors fighting for Allah.
Mutaween - Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice. The religious police in Saudi Arabia. In March of 2002, the mutaween forced school girls fleeing a fire back into a burning building in Mecca, because they were not properly covered in Hijab and Abaya. Fifteen died.
Muezzin – Chosen person at the mosque who calls Muslims to prayer.
Muhammad – Also Mohammad. (PBUH) The Prophet (or Messenger or Apostle) of Allah, to whom the Qur’an was revealed as God’s final message or “book” for human kind. Since Muhammad was Allah’s Prophet, everything he did was approved by Allah and to be emulated.
Nikah – Marriage ceremony
Nikah Mut'ah – Temporary marriage. Under Shi’a Islam, a “temporary marriage” may be contracted for a specific time, from an hour to years. Sunni Muslims and other critics of the Shi’a considered it a legal form of prostitution, forbidden by the Qur’an.
Qur’an – Also Quran or Koran. The Muslim Holy book, revealed by Allah to his Messenger, The Prophet Muhammad, in bits and pieces over twenty-three years. Later verses are considered by most Islamic scholars to abrogate earlier verses where they disagree, such as those about drinking wine. Many Muslims therefore believe, for example, that the Sura of the Sword, Sura 9, abrogates earlier, more peaceful suras that were given to Muhammad in Mecca, before he fled to Medina. Thus the charge by critics that Islam is not really a “Religion of Peace.” Like the New Testament and Jesus, the Qur’an was not written down in Muhammad’s time, but was collected and codified much later. Thus some versions have different numbers for the Suras. The Qur’an is considered by Muslims to be the fixed word of God, His immutable and final message to mankind, not subject to reinterpretation or revision in light of modern developments. Critics charge that Allah’s revelations to Muhammad (PBUH) were often very convenient for His Messenger, as when Allah revealed that the Prophet’s favorite wife, Aisha, could not be accused of committing adultery, because there were not four Muslim witnesses.
Ramadan – Ninth month of the lunar Muslim calendar, thus it moves on the western calendar. The sacred month during which Allah first revealed parts of the Qur’an to Muhammad. Fasting and sexual abstinence during daylight are required of Muslims during Ramadan. One of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Sajjad – Prayer mats or rugs.
Salat – Five daily prayers to Allah. One of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Shahadah – Confession of Faith, and most important of the Five Pillars of Islam. “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.”  Saying that makes you a Muslim. Renouncing it makes you an apostate, punishable by death under strict Shari’a law.
Sharaf – Honour. A Muslim, particularly of the Arab tradition, will go to great lengths to wipe out a dishonour which has “blackened his face,” including killing a wife, sister or daughter who is thought to have brought dishonour on the family, often by the “crime” of having been raped, or for an offense considered trivial in the West. Do a web search for “Honour Killing” for more information on how widespread the practice is, even in Europe.
Shari’a – Sometimes Shariah. Islamic Law, based on the Qur’an and the Hadith. Under Islam, the concept of separation of Mosque and State does not exist, except for a small group of reformers, called secular Muslims, and considered apostates by most of the Ummah. A large number of Muslims, perhaps a majority, believe it is their duty to Allah to impose Islam and Shari’a upon the world.
Shaykh – also Sheik. A leader, often of a tribe or clan.
Shi’a – Minority Muslim sect, estimated at 15% of total Muslims. The Shiites believe that Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali was his rightful successor as Caliph. Considered apostates by faithful Sunni Muslims. And vice versa.
Shurah – Sometimes Shura. A tribal council. It was a disputed shurah of Muhammad’s followers that selected Abu Bakr to be the first Caliph after Muhammad’s death, leading some scholars to claim that Islam is democratic.
Sunna – The Islamic way of life. Sunna is sometimes used interchangeably with Hadith.
Sunni – Orthodox Muslims, who accept the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” who came after Muhammad, starting with his follower, Abu Bakr.
Sura – also Surah. Chapters of the Qur’an.
Taqiyya -- There are two forms of lying to non-believers that are permitted under certain circumstances, taqiyya and kitman.  These circumstances are typically those that advance the cause Islam - in some cases by gaining the trust of non-believers in order to draw out their vulnerability and defeat them.
Ummah – The community of Muslims. Depending on the school of thought and the beliefs of individual Muslim, some branches or some Muslims may not be considered part of the Ummah by other Muslims, because they don’t believe the proper things and are thus apostates.
Umra - Lesser pilgrimage to Mecca, which may take place at anytime during the year. Muslims are still expected to make the Hajj, if possible.
Uswa hasana – Recognition of Muhammad (The Prophet of Allah, or Allah’s Messenger) as the perfect example of conduct for Muslims. Thus the fact that Muhammad held slaves, had sex with slaves, condoned the rape of captive women (Those whom your right hands possess. Sura 4. Take in marriage those…of your male and female slaves who are honest. Sura 24.), and had sex with one of his eleven wives, Aisha, when she was nine, according to the Hadith, makes that desirable conduct for Muslims today. For example, article 1041 of the Civil Code of Iran states that girls can be engaged before the age of nine, and married at nine: “Marriage before puberty (nine full lunar years for girls) is prohibited. Marriage contracted before reaching puberty with the permission of the guardian is valid provided that the interests of the ward are duly observed.”
Wajh – “Face.” Related to honour, if you lose face, that is if your “face is blackened,” as Arabs say, you must regain face and thus “whiten” your face. This leads to much violence.
Walima--Wedding dinner given by the groom's family to welcome the bride.
Zakat – The tax on Muslims to help the poor, generally supposed to be 2.5% of income. One of the Five Pillars of the Faith.
Zina – Sex outside of marriage.


Polls of Muslim attitudes
(Full List here, a sampling below.)

NOP Research: 1 in 4 British Muslims say 7/7 bombings were justified

People-Press: 31% of Turks support suicide attacks against Westerners in Iraq.

YNet: One third of Palestinians (32%) supported the slaughter of a Jewish family, including the children:

World Public Opinion: 61% of Egyptians, 32% of Indonesians, 41% of Pakistanis, 38% of Moroccans approve of attacks on Americans 83% of Palestinians approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (only 14% oppose) 62% of Jordanians approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (21% oppose) 42% of Turks approve of some or most groups that attack Americans (45% oppose) A minority of Muslims disagreed entirely with terror attacks on Americans: (Egypt 34%; Indonesia 45%; Pakistan 33%) About half of those opposed to attacking Americans were sympathetic with al-Qaeda’s attitude toward the U.S.

Pew Research (2007): 26% of younger Muslims in America, 35% of young Muslims in Britain, 42% of young Muslims in France, 22% of young Muslims in Germany, 29% of young Muslims in Spain believe suicide bombings are justified.

Pew Research (2011): 8% of Muslims in America believe suicide bombings are often or sometimes justified

Pew Research (2007): Muslim-Americans who identify more strongly with their religion are three times more likely to feel that suicide bombings are justified

ICM: 5% of Muslims in Britain tell pollsters they would not report a planned Islamic terror attack to authorities. 27% do not support the deportation of Islamic extremists preaching violence and hate.

Federation of Student Islamic Societies: About 1 in 5 Muslim students in Britain (18%) would not report a fellow Muslim planning a terror attack.

Populus Poll (2006): 16% of British Muslims believe suicide attacks against Israelis are justified. 37% believe Jews in Britain are a “legitimate target”.

Policy Exchange: 1 in 4 Muslims in the UK have never heard of  the Holocaust; Only 34% of British Muslims believe the Holocaust ever happened.

Policy Exchange: 61% of British Muslims want homosexuality punished

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